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Art Encyclopedia - Collage

Art information > Art Encyclopedia > C > Collage

Collage
Collage is the technique of sticking or attaching pieces of paper and other materials to a flat ground. The collage technique can be combined with painting and drawing. Collage is different from papiers collés, which employs paper only. In collage the materials are sometimes chosen for their symbolic or evocative associations but in papiers collés the paper is chiefly chosen for its form and texture. Collage was first used by the Cubists in 1912 to introduce real objects and surfaces into their paintings without reverting to the traditional means of representing reality.

Techniques of collage were first used at the time of the invention of paper in China around 200 BC. The use of collage, however, remained very limited until the 10th century in Japan, when calligraphers began to apply glued paper when writing their poems. The technique of collage appeared in medieval Europe during the 13th century. Gold leaf panels started to be applied in Gothic cathedrals around the 15th and 16th centuries. Gemstones and other precious metals were applied to religious images, icons, and also, to coats of arms. In the 19th century, collage methods also were used among hobbyists for memorabilia and books. The term collage derives from the French "colle" meaning "glue". This term was coined by both Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the beginning of the 20th century when collage became a distinctive part of modern art.





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